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Attitudes Toward Mathematics Inventory (ATMI)

Supplemental Information:

Assessment Type:



5-point Likert scale

Publication Date:

Jan 01, 1996


545 high school students responded to the initial survey

Domain(s) Evaluated:

Engagement, Attitude

Sample items:

1. Mathematics is a worthwhile and necessary subject.
10. My mind goes blank and I am unable to think clearly when working with mathematics.
23. I am confident that I could learn advanced mathematics.


Cronbach’s alpha = 0.963 (Reliability for SHORT ATMI Cronbach alpha = 0.97)


content validity established



Administration time:

20 minutes

Requires a Computer:


Requires Internet Access:


Primary reference:

Tapia, M. & Marsh, G. E. (2004) An Instrument to Measure Mathematics Attitudes. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 8(2), 16-21.


Tapia, M. (1996). The Attitudes toward Mathematics Instrument. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association (Tuscaloosa, AL, November 6-8, 1996)

Tapia, M., Marsh, G. (2000). Attitudes Toward Mathematics Instrument: An Investigation with Middle School Students. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association (Bowling Green, KY, November 15-17, 2000).

Other References:
Majeed, A. A., Darmawan, I. G. N. & Lynch, P. (2013). A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Attitudes Toward Mathematics Inventory (ATMI). The Mathematics Educator, 15(1) 121-135.
Study analyzed the reliability and validity of ATMI by using confirmatory factor analysis, with the survey administered to 699 year 7 and 8 students in south Australia. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the overall scale were (0.963) suggesting high reliability of the scale. The CFA supported the original four factor correlated structure based on several fit indices. Evidence suggesting ATMI is a viable scale to measure attitudes towards mathematics.

Khine, M. S. & Afari, E. (2014). Psychometric properties of an inventory to determine the factor that affect students’ attitudes towards mathematics. Psychology, Society and Education, 6(1) 1-15.
The study explored the reliability and validity of ATMI translated to Arabic, it was administered to middle school students in United Arab Emirates. The analysis showed that the four-factor model was the best fit having used CFA (confirmatory factor analysis) suggesting the translated version is effective in Arabic speaking countries. The convergent validity, assessed using composite reliability and average variance, was found to range from .56 to .88 thus validity is demonstrated.

Yee Lim, S. Chapman, E (2013). Development of a short form of the attitudes toward mathematics inventory. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 82 145-164.
An abbreviated version of ATMI was created (due to the authors suggesting the original was too long/dated/assessed only with western samples) and analyzed confirmatory factor analyses, which supported the original four-factor structure. However certain factors were found to have high correlation with each other, therefore three factors were removed forming the SHORT ATMI. The new survey had high correlation with the original (r=.96) and the validity was demonstrated through inter-correlation between subscales. Cronbach’s alpha analyzing internal consistency was 0.97 overall. The participants were also able to finish the new scale in less than 10 minutes making more applicable for on site administration.

STEM Criteria









Martha Tapia, Berry College School of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, mtapia@berry.edu